Língua Inglesa Língua Inglesa - Compreensão e Interpretação de Texto
Unlike reference grammars, activities handbooks, cultural or literary readers, audio or video ancillary materiais and computer software, foreign language textbooks are characterized by four major features that they have in common with texts in other subjects. They are:
1Principle-oriented. They provide the learner with basic principies of knowledge. Webster defines a textbook as a "book containing a presentation of the principies of a subject, a source providing an introduction or a basis." Larousse points to the "notion essentielles" given by a textbook.
2 Methodical. The organization and progression of textbooks is methodical. They embody the notion that knowledge is itemizable and classifiable and that learning is sequential and cumulative.
3. Authoritative. Textbooks are sources of authority (OLSON, 1980, p. 192). They are by essence normative (KONIGS, 1983, p. 400), above criticism. They present the language as it should be spoken and written by the learners, cultural information as it should be viewed and interpreted bythe reader. The idea that atext could contain misprints or even errors is inconceivable for most learners. By contrast with noneducational material, a foreign language text imparts knowledge that is viewed by its user as ultimately imperative, not declarative, knowledge.
4 Literal. Unlike a work of fiction, a textbook is usually intended to be taken literally, at face value. Everything is the way it is depicted and no other way: "Texts say what they mean and mean precisely neither more nor less than what they say" (Olson, 1980, p. 190).
Adaptado de: KRAMSCH, C. J. The Cultural Discourse of Foreign Language Textbooks. ln: TILIO, R.; FERREIRA, A. de J. lnnovations and Challenges in Language Teaching and Materiais Development. Campinas: Pontes, 2017.
Na sent ença "They provide the learner with basic principies of knowledge." (Tópico 1), o termo "they" se refere a:
- A. Principle-oriented
- B. grammars, activities handbooks, cultural or literary readers
- C. foreign language textbooks
- D. four major features